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WORLD HERITAGES IN INDONESIA

Definition of world heritage base on Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (2016), consists of cultural heritage and natural heritage, or mixed both of cultural and natural heritage.
Cultural Heritage consists of: 
  1. Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of history, art or science;
  2. Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of history, art or science;
  3. Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of Outstanding Universal Value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological points of view.

Natural Heritage consists of:
  1. Natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of Outstanding Universal Value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view;
  2. Geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of science or conservation;
  3. Natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.

Mixed Cultural and Natural Heritage consists of:
Cultural landscapes. 
Cultural landscapes are cultural properties and represent the "combined works of nature and of man". They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal.

Movable Heritage. 
Nominations of immovable heritage which are likely to become movable will not be considered.

Outstanding Universal Value. 
Outstanding Universal Value means cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity. As such, the permanent protection of this heritage is of the highest importance to the international community as a whole.

The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 8 World Heritage Sites in Indonesia. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage and four for natural heritage. Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage but in Indonesia, there are 4 cultural, 4 natural, and no mixed sites. (source: unesco.org)

Cultural heritage criteria:
  1. to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;
  2. to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;
  3. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;
  4. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;
  5. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;
  6. to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);

Natural heritage criteria:
  1. to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;
  2. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;
  3. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;
  4. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.


These are world heritage in Indonesia:
Cultural (4)
  1. Borobudur Temple Compounds (1991)
  2. Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy (2012)
  3. Prambanan Temple Compounds (1991)
  4. Sangiran Early Man Site (1996)


Natural (4)
  1. Komodo National Park (1991)
  2. Lorentz National Park (1999)
  3. Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (2004)
  4. Ujung Kulon National Park (1991)


There are more properties submitted on the Tentative List (19)
A Tentative List is an inventory of those properties which each State Party intends to consider for nomination. 
  1. Betung Kerihun National Park (Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo) (2004)
  2. Bunaken National Park (2005)
  3. Raja Ampat Islands (2005)
  4. Taka Bonerate National Park (2005)
  5. Wakatobi National Park (2005)
  6. Derawan Islands (2005)
  7. Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement (2009)
  8. Bawomataluo Site (2009)
  9. Muara Takus Compound Site (2009)
  10. Muarajambi Temple Compound (2009)
  11. Trowulan - Former Capital City of Majapahit Kingdom (2009)
  12. Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep (2009)
  13. Sangkulirang – Mangkalihat Karts: Prehistoric rock art area (2015)
  14. The Old Town of Jakarta (Formerly old Batavia) and 4 Outlying Islands (Onrust, Kelor, Cipir dan Bidadari) (2015)
  15. Semarang Old Town (2015)
  16. Sawahlunto Old Coal Mining Town (2015)
  17. Traditional Settlement at Nagari Sijunjung (2015)
  18. The Historic and Marine Landscape of the Banda Islands (2015)
  19. Historical City Centre of Yogyakarta (2017)



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