DEVELOPMENT OF ECOTOURISM MANGROVE WONOREJO TO IMPROVE COMMUNITY ECONOMIC LEVELS AROUND THE REGION MANGROVE WONOREJO SURABAYA
Coastal tourism activities are one of the sectors that should receive special attention from the government, based on the government's decision on coastal ecosystems about green belts (400 meters) from the coastline and 10 meters from the river mouth, the community should be able to preserve coastal areas. To run the government program, the effort should be avoided mangrove damage by preserving the environment. Garbage accumulation can have a negative impact on the eco-tourism. It should be handled immediately and followed up on an ongoing basis. Preparation of environmental management development plan needs to be done so that the arrangement of the area can be more optimal. The development of environmental management can not be separated from the three main indicators of economic, social and environmental benefits.
If the coastal areas are managed professionally and sustainably it will become a source of foreign exchange and will play a significant role in efforts to improve the national economy. The abundance of natural beauty of tourism, the variety of plants that exist in coastal areas, and strategic geographic location, is a distinct advantage for Indonesia. One of the coastal areas that can be developed economically and social welfare is the eastern region of Surabaya, which is a city that has some forests and beaches that can be utilized as one tourist destination. In accordance with the policies of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries that the marine and fisheries sector has been used as a national flagship sector, the explanation is implemented maritime and marine and food sovereignty with a business function / process approach from upstream to downstream.
Eco Tourism Mangrove in Wonorejo Surabaya is one of the tourism management in the coastal area that there are economic activities based on natural resources such as forests with various plants that can be utilized to make handicrafts, make natural ink for batik, make syrup, make flour, make candy and others. Waters can be used to transport marine tourism when visitors cross the waters to see the mangrove forest.
Clean mangrove areas from pollution will have a positive impact on ecotourism development. But now the mangrove area still can not be said to be clean from pollution due to lack of public awareness. In the area of Mangrove Wonorejo Surabaya Eco Tourism this natural pollution in the form of garbage accumulation that disturb the beauty and over time can affect the development of existing plants. The accumulation of garbage in the waters that drifted along the river and stranded in the forest, really creates a sad sight, not to mention the color of river water that is not clear because of polluted garbage carried by the water flow. Inadequate management of the benefits of crops in the tourist area is also a problem that needs to be handled properly. Plants in mangrove Wonorejo Surabaya will develop well and can produce products that can provide an economic level improvement of the community around the mangrove area Wonorejo Surabaya if the area is free from garage pollution. With the existence of the problem, it is necessary effort management of Eco Tourism Mangrove Wonorejo Surabaya in a professional and sustainable, so that the tour can really be cleaner, more orderly, and beneficial for the economics of the surrounding community and can be an attractive tourist destination for tourists.
Some experts say that Mangrove Forest, such as Kusmana et al, (2003), is a type of forest that grows in tidal areas, especially in protected coastal areas, river estuaries that are inundated at high tide and free from inundation at community retreat The plants tolerate salt.
Soerianegara and Indarwan (1982) stated that mangrove forests are forests that grow in coastal areas, usually located in the bay area and river estuary areas characterized by:
1. not affected by climate,
2. influenced tides,
3. Inundated land of sea water,
4. Lowland beach,
5. the forest does not have a canopy structure,
6. the tree species usually consist of fires (Avicenia sp), Pepada (Sonneralia), Mangrove (Rhizopora Sp), Lacang (Bruguiera Sp), Nyirih (Xylocarpus Sp), Nipah (Nipa Sp) and others.
Nybeikhen (1988) stated that mangrove forest is a general term used to describe a tropical beach community dominated by several distinctive tree species or shrubs that have the ability to grow in saltwater. As existing in Wonorejo mangrove Surabaya, existing mangrove plants such as: Bogem fruit (Sonneration Caseolaris) is a mangrove fruit that grows a lot in ecotourism Wonorejo mangrove Surabaya. Bogem fruit contains vitamin C is high enough, has a sour taste and refreshing. Mangrove Ecotourism Wonorejo Surabaya is a coastal tourism located in Jalan Raya Wonorejo No 1 Rungkut Surabaya. While this mangrove tour only open on Saturday, Sunday and holidays from 08.00 am to 16.00 pm.
1. Garbage Management
In mangrove ecotourism Wonorejo Surabaya found many garbage because it is not handled properly. As a result of this garbage can cause soil fertility to be reduced and affect the development of plants. Garbage has different effects depending on the type and duration of decomposition in nature. The types of garbage that are commonly found in mangrove ecotourism include:
- Paper: decomposition of 2-5 months,
- Fruit skin: long decomposition 6 months,
- Cardboard: 5-month long decomposition,
- Plastic bags: long decomposition of 10-12 years,
- Glass bottle: it takes 1 million years to break down without a trace.
- And Styrofoam: can not be destroyed.
How to handle that is by preparing the appropriate type of garbage bin, and also there are some composter that aims to process wet garbage to be clean compost.
2. Usability for Local Communities
Wonorejo mangrove ecotourism is managed by non-governmental organizations with surrounding communities that aims to be able to together to contribute knowledge to the public how important awareness in maintaining the balance of natural ecosystems in this matter is care for mangrove forest.
In mangrove ecotourism Wonorejo many activities that can be done in order to provide benefits for the surrounding community, both people who are in the mangrove environment itself and for people outside the mangrove environment. Things that have been done by mangrove tourism managers and surrounding communities in the development of them:
- The existence of water vehicle rental that can be enjoyed by tourists with 3 types of vehicles to get around in the tourist area of mangrove forest with varying costs, namely:
• Boat, at a cost of Rp. 15,000 for children and Rp. 25,000 for adults.
• Speed Boat at a cost of Rp 300,000 for 6 people.
• And Cruise Ship "Jaya Samudra" that can along the river along the 5 kilometers to the sea with a depth of 5 meters to see the animals that are on the edge of the river mangrove forest. All ships will stop in the mangroves to head to the gazebo monitor to rest.
- Street vendors who have been given a place and neat and clean. It is intended to provide a comfortable feel for visitors who are doing a tour in mangrove wonorejo so no need to bring lunch from outside.
- An information board about the explanation of bird species that live around mangroves, types of trees and other infrastructure such as toilets, places of worship, libraries and much more.
- With a supportive location, the public also makes use of for private events such as Pre wedding, research even for leisure.
- The surrounding community also utilize the results of existing trees such as for tea, syrup and batik. Products that have been processed by the local community are:
Mangrove forests have special potential. Mangrove Farmer Group makes a natural drink from a kind of mangrove. Mangrove Farmer Group Surabaya, which helps mangrove mangrove independently lead Mochson, offers the sensation of enjoying tea in a unique way. Mangrove tea is taken from Acanthus Ilicifolius or its local name Druju. Druju grows on a riverbed brackish river. Its form is not like a mangrove plant that is known to many people, that is trunk hard. Druju is an easily recognizable shrub from its long, prickly leaves on the tip and on both sides, about a meter high. The stem of this plant is also filled with thorns as a defense so as not to be eaten by animals. The mangrove tourists of the tea connoisseur are fully involved in making tea before enjoying its usefulness. Natural tourists are invited along the pond embankment in Wonorejo Surabaya to pick druju leaf. The terrain is not easy. They must go hand in hand because of the narrowness of the embankment. In some places, have to pursue a bridge made in a perfunctory manner. Some are made of wooden blocks, some are not bridges. Not to mention the stinging heat of the coast.
Mangrove Syrup Original Taste BOGEM Brand
Since 2004 Pak Soni Mohson from Bojonegoro together with Wonorejo mangrove farmer group manage the fruit of bogem to syrup bogem with size 360 ml. The idea was made to support the preservation of coastal ecosystems and the empowerment of coastal communities. How to make it is as follows: mature fruits are washed thoroughly from the running water. Peeled with a stainless knife so that no change in the color of the syrup. Bogem juice boiled and squeezed with a cloth, after that just boiled again with 2 kg sugar to thicken and boil. Once cool, packed in bottles and ready for sale.
Is a creation of citizens, one of which Lulut Sri Yuliani, who invites the community around to pioneer the making of mangrove batik. Batik mangrove is specially designed according to the spirit of the struggle that it carries. Batik SeRu or Batik Mangrove Rungkut Surabaya has been established, and also Small Medium Business Cooperative (UKM) Griya Karya Tiara Kusuma which aims to promote and distribute mangrove products produced by local residents. Ibu Lulut wants mangrove to become a new icon of Surabaya City which is known to the wider community.
3. Future development
Development strategies that can be taken by mangrove ecotourism managers should be directed to the main content values as an ecotourism as well as eduwisata. Both of these values are actually needed by the community considering that in the urban environment is difficult to find things that are natural, and the young generation of the nation is in need of knowledge about how important nature. Based on these two values, Wonorejo mangrove ecotourism development strategy of Surabaya should optimize the potential for tourist visitation to take place on an ongoing basis. The way that can be done is to maintain the authenticity, beauty, and sustainability of mangrove environment, and hold educational activities to the younger generation.
Tjiptojuwono. E, A. Tjahjoko, R. Yuniarsih, E. M. Dewi, J. A. Yaputra, 2016